Setting Back in Motion – Oldest Industry of IndiaNovember 8 th 2016, Narendra Modi announced the demonetization of Rs. 500and Rs. 1000 notes, with this began a race of time, people were running around toconvert their old notes and buy in newer Rs. 500 and Rs. 2000 notes, one suchindustry within this commotion was the Textile Industry of India, the one industrywhich still comprises of second largest employment all across India and in year2010 contributed to 11.04% of total exports of India.Textile Industry employment consists of both literate and illiterate classbasically the blue-collar jobs that work mainly on cash. With the absolute cashcrunch suddenly in the picture it was very difficult to continue work while providingto the basic needs of the family for the employees. The Employer was ready to payhowever in old cash, but the employees being from various backgrounds most ofthem without even appropriate ID cards found it difficult to work under suchsituation where they would have no place to go convert the cash.Starting from top down on the value chain, purchase of apparels was highlyaffected due to unavailability of liquid cash, which in turn affected the cash flow tothe textile industry. Textile Manufacturers into seasonal wear were highly affected,since the announcement on November 8 th 2016, the sales of winter wear in Indiahighly dropped due to lack of liquid cash. The retailers were affected due to the slowdown of apparel purchase, resulting in a less cash flow into the textilemanufacturing, which resulted in the complete slow down of the value chain. Cottonharvest season is around October – November, however due to demonetization,farmers were unable to sell their cotton resulting in increased inventories, andbottoming of prices.Looking at both sides of the coin, clothing is one of our basic necessities;eventually it would fall back into its place once the country is comfortable with theroutine of newer notes. We will always need clothes and eventually would startpurchasing apparels with credit/debit and online modes. This in turn would startthe cash flow in retailers and eventually leading down to manufacturers and mills.We need to understand this process as a temporary slow down in the textileindustry, which would rise back up in a couple of months eventually leading tonormalcy.On the other hand, a similar situation would lay across with exporters, whereliquid cash would be available more easily and blue collar jobs would not be affectedeventually. If we go to see the demonetization has made us realize the importance ofappropriate paper work in the blue collar employees which would eventually helpthem and us as well. A temporary phase that was set into motion will noweventually fizzle out and textile industry would be back into routine as before.What is Textile BasketTextile Basket, is the world’s first and largest e commerce fabricsmarketplace, here to fulfill all your fabric needs. With over 8000 varieties of fabricson www.textilebasket.com, we cater to all the readily available fabric needs of anentity directly from over 100 suppliers across India.Moreover, our second largest segment is Make to Order, where we create thefabric of your choice at the best possible rate and quality. This not only helpsmanufacturers reduce costing but also create their own innovations.Our third largest area of concentration is discounted readily available fabrics.All across India, there are a large number of manufacturers that always have somestock fabrics left over after production, due to excess fabrics or cancelled orders etc,these fabrics are of premium quality, lying around in the factories, themanufacturers are ready to sell these fabrics off at a slightly lower rate thanpurchase rate, and there are more than enough manufactures around ready to buythese fabrics.Hence, Textile Basket becomes your one stop shop for all your fabric needs,making fabric purchase simpler than ever.
Let’s talk about different categories under Men’s apparel and then sub-categorising the fabric used accordingly. These are the kinds of fabrics commonly used to make the different clothes which contribute in making the apparel range for men.
● Shirting: Linen, Big Checks, Chambery, Dobby, Oxford, Printed, Satin, Slub, Twill.
● T-shirts: Rib, French Terry, Heavy Fleece, Jacquard, Jersey.
● Polo: Pique, Honeycomb, Horizontal, Stripe.
● Pants: Heavy Twill, Yarn dyed, Small checks, slub chambray, poly checks, herringbone.
● Suiting: 40’s Linen, Oxford, Dobby, Solid Dyed, Twill, Yarn Dyed.
● Indian traditional wear: Linen, Whites, chambray, filafil.
Different weaves make different fabrics, the most common weaves in men’s apparels or say fabrics are the following:
Poplin is also called broadcloth, it is a plain weave signifying the threads alternately cross over and then under each other, which results in a very smooth and durable fabric that has a silky hand feel, particularly when with a higher thread count. For a sharper look, poplins look very crisp when ironed.
Twill fabrics are known to have a weft thread that runs over and under multiple warp threads as opposed to a simple plain weave where the weft only crosses a single warp thread at a time. This creates interesting patterns like a herringbone, houndstooth or a simple, diagonal rib. Twills are known to be very durable fabrics that have a softer hand feel than poplins and are a bit more sheen.
The traditional oxford is known as a type of basket weave in which multiple weft threads cross over an equal number of warp threads. The threads are usually of a single color crossed with a white to give oxford its unique and exclusive checkerboard appearance. It a versatile fabric which can be worn casually and professionally depending on the thread count and finish.
The dobby weave is commonly known as a weave because dobby weaves have a unique geometric pattern in the fabric, which is accomplished by using a special loom that raises and lowers the warp threads one at a time individually, allowing the weaver to create the geometrically distinct pattern. Dobby fabrics can come in all kinds of patterns, colors, weights and hand feels.
Herringbone weaves are mostly found in wool fabrics and suiting, they are often found in dress shirting as well. Herringbone weave is a type of twill which has a distinctive ‘V’ shaped pattern, named after the herring fish. The weave tends to be slightly heavier in weight, and are more often found in seasonal shirting fabrics for cold weather.
The collection consists of the trends coming back, we are moving back in time with bell bottoms for both men and women, the old fashioned broad lapels and collars are back, borrowing inspiration from childhood favorites they have created a theme of ‘comic meets denim’, there is sustainable fashion with actress Emma Watson as the icon, ending size games with oversize or universal size clothes, designs in sportswear, genderfluid or rather ungendered clothes in simple words clothes for both men and women.
- Broad Lapels and Collars: Suits are always in style. The broad lapels on suits from the 90’s are coming back, the large collars in shirts to compliment the same as well. Men and women both are wearing the same. The clothes in the fashion shows are taking inspiration from the gone era to make the best of the latest trend
- High waists: High waists are waists which are above your navel ideally; all types of bottom wear are being made with these kind i.e. skinny jeans, bell bottoms, skirts, shorts, even formal pants. Again, these are trends brought back from the 90’s. The experiment is with the latest fabrics but the trend is that of a revival.
- Comic meets Denim: The comic cutouts are embroidered or patched on khaki jackets, denim and knit apparels. From accessories to jeans they’re everywhere, every major fashion house is trying to incorporate the same.
- Sustainable Fashion: This is the latest revolution in fashion right, every process in the textile industry is from sustainable resources right from the dyeing to the weaving of the fabric. British actress Emma Watson is known for supporting it and designers are following suit. Sustainable fashion is important due to the climate change and the trend is here to stay.
- Oversize clothes: These are clothes which follow the fit-all concept, clothes not defined by the size, free sizes fit to all body types are made stylish by the designers across the world. The comfort level and the look are great, making the style best.
- Sports in design: Designers have gone ahead and mixed sports and fashion as the theme. Ease of movement and fabrics fit for outdoors, the athletic spirit can be witnessed through the clothes on the runway in the fashion week. Eye catching colors, bright and contrasted.
- Genderfluid or ungendered: Clothes fit for both genders in simple words. It’s for tomboys around the world, no more searching through racks in men sections. The fashion industry has moved forward when it comes to breaking the usual mindset, this trend is a personal favorite from the fashion week.
Trending Fashion Fabrics
Trending this fall and for the year to come, these trends have been ruling the runways, has its influence in the recent collections at the stores.
From sweatshirts to dresses, shimmer has made a comeback recently, all the 90’s textile trends are reviving, shimmer was the definition of party wear fabric, obviously with the present contemporary designs it’s experimented on more than just party wear. Shimmer in pastel colors, the soft and shimmer combination is a win, it’s either the pastel shades or softer tones.
It’s one of the trending patterns, vertical and horizontal, mostly vertical is trending, trousers, shirts, skirts, shirt dresses in soft fabrics like cotton, blend fabrics, poly cotton, rayon, linen etc. Beyonce recently wore a pink and white striped pleated skirt catching headlines for making a rather bold statement while she was just wardrobe coordinated with her daughter Ivy.
The royalty of fabrics, velvet is back in dresses, crop tops, our all time favorite turtlenecks, even boots for that matter. There’s more color, lighter shades, nudes, classic maroon and black will always be in trend. Gone are the days it was only part of winter couture, the fabric comes in variety to suit the lightness of the weather, silk, and viscose respectively. Patterns and prints in velvet have taken a backseat, plain is the thumb rule.
Since see-through dresses and nudes are in trend, lace is catching the limelight for creating a perfect optical illusion in terms of skin and cloth. Color wise not so much variety but no-one is complaining till black and white exist. The sheer craftsmanship involved will be in style as far as textile trends are concerned.
Grey, white, black, nude. Knit is so in style. The comfort and simplicity is a win. Sweatshirts, pants, dresses, knit is everyone’s go-to when confused, it is gender fluid and works well on any body type.
Be it jackets, skirts, shirts, dresses or jumpsuits, denim is the savior for those with fashion blues. The comfort level is top notch and fits you best. This textile trend has evolved over jeans to dresses shows it’s here to stay.
Applying color patterns and designs to fabrics dates back to 5000 BC documented in Egypt. It is one of the most complex textile operations because of the many variables and the need for precision; it continues to be popular today for textiles of all sorts.
The prominent difference between printing and dyeing is basic, dyeing is coloring the entire fabric in one color whereas printing is restricted to designs and patterns on the fabric.
Fabric is first treated with chemicals to prepare it for printing. Different motifs and designs are made on the fabric in different colors or pigments. The dye to not spread and overlap adjacent pattern, a strong bonding is formed between the dye and the fabric.
The dyes are commonly made of vat, reactive, naphthol and disperse colors, these have good fastness properties. The pigments are not really dyes but are used extensively, they are among the fastest known colors and are effective for light to medium shades, and however, they are not used for dark colors as they may crock or rub off. Improved resins can be used as a substitute here. In today’s market, cheap prints made of tartar emetic and tannic acids are highly discouraged. The printing process involves seven stages:
- Pretreatment of fabric,
- Preparation of colors,
- Preparation of printing paste,
- Impression of paste on fabric using printing methods,
- Drying of fabric,
- Fixing the printing with steam or hot air for pigments,
- After process treatments.
Methods of Printing
There are three techniques practiced i.e. Direct, Discharge and Resist
- Direct Printing
It is done a white or a colored fabric, when done on the latter, it is known as overprinting. The dye in a paste form is used to imprint the desired pattern. The print paste is developed by adding a thickening agent to a limited amount of water and the dye is dissolved in it. On the other hand, pigment excludes thickeners altogether as the mixing up of resins, solvents and water is a thick paste in itself.
- Discharge Printing
This approach is a dying practice, first the fabric is dyed in parts, then it is printed with a chemical that destroys the color in the designed areas. Alternatively, the base color is eliminated and another color is printed in its place. The printed fabric is then steamed and thoroughly washed.
- Resist Printing
In this technique two dyes are used, the first one is used to make the designs or motifs and the second one can be used as a fill or second pattern, what is unique about this is that the first dye is resistant in nature to the second dye, hence, the pattern is observed by the fill of the second dye coloring the spaces where the first dye isn't present.
Types of Printing
- Block Printing
- Roller Printing
- Duplex Printing
- Screen Printing
- Stencil Printing
- Transfer Printing
- Blotch Printing
- Airbrush Painting
- Electrostatic Printing
- Photo Printing
- Jet Spray Printing
- Digital printing
These are the basic printing and dyeing practices common around the world. The dyes and fabrics may vary worldwide. The advancement in technology has led to fewer old techniques. The new methods are an answer to large scale production in quality time whereas the old methods are in trend due to few who see it as an art. Small scale printing houses provide expertise in indigenous methods, right from organic dye to natural dyeing process. Printing is a term from this century, whereas dyeing is much ancient. Though there is revival through small boutiques dedicated to organic dyes, DIY printing and exclusive designs. Modern printing techniques are a result of art and science both, designing the technique and executing it a large level is commendable, it is safe to say that with businesses going around the world, modern printing techniques is the answer to this era’s demand for economies of scale.